Cold Fusion Technology - how it works and why hydrogen it's so important
Cold fusion has been a controversial topic of discussion in the scientific world. To some scientists it was a hypothesis and over the past fifty years it continued to baffle them. Until recently a couple of scientists have claimed that they have successfully maintained cold fusion in reactors at room temperature, to generate heat energy.
What is Cold Fusion?
Cold fusion is a safe, clean and decentralized energy source. It can supply enough energy to sustain all our needs and put an end to dirty sources of energy such as oil, gas and coal. It is not a cold reaction but one which generates heat at room temperature. It should not be confused to be a nuclear reaction because it does
not involve radioactive substances.
The Beginning of Cold Fusion Technology
Cold fusion is known as “Hydrogen Fusion”. It is understood to be a process which is responsible for the energy output equivalent to the sun and other stars in the solar system. Hydrogen atoms are the main ingredient of hydrogen fusion, and the nuclei of the atoms are driven to form the helium nuclei. Four hydrogen nuclei produce a single helium nucleus. During the process of fusion subatomic particles are emitted as byproducts.
It was based on this principle that hydrogen bombs were engineered and successfully tested.
Why Hydrogen is Important
Following the discovery of hydrogen bombs, scientists and
engineers began to search for ways to control the hydrogen fusion reactions. The aim was to harness the energy and use it in more constructive ways. Additionally,
hydrogen fusion did not generate dangerous nuclear wastes. In 1989 Stanley Pons and Martins
Fleischmann from University of Utah claimed their first controlled experiment with hydrogen fusion at room temperature. This news caused quite a stir amongst scientists and controversies had been on since then. This experiment was the “Cold Fusion Experiment”.
The experiment also involved the use of nuclei of deuterium which is an isotope of Hydrogen. The neutrons and protons within the atom were required. They were packed into stable heavy palladium electrodes which generated more heat than any pure chemical reaction could produce. However, physicists waved it off as a mistaken experimental result because it contradicted the laws of physics. Until recently, however, two scientists Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi designed a reactor which produces high amounts of energy using nickel hydrogen fusion.
This is why hydrogen is important for cold fusion reactors. It is safe and generated high
amounts of energy without producing harmful bi-products. Additionally, it is a cheap resource and very safe to use. Their discoveries are going to be used as a better alternative to source energy for heating and cooling as well as electrical energy. They have started manufacturing LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Revolution) and E-Cat (Energy Catalyzer) which will be available at larger scale towards the end of the year.
How Cold Fusion Technology Works?
The explanation for cold fusion technology is that it happens in condensed matter. This is because it is in condensed matter that the nuclei practically come together. This makes cold fusion a friendly reaction which does not need thermonuclear temperatures to force it to occur.
The first step of the process is when the nuclei of hydrogen or deuterium atoms are trapped in the host lattice. They are therefore much closer to one another than they would otherwise be in the gaseous form. At this point quantum effects take control of the reaction, generating broad bands of energy levels. The vibrations of trapped nuclei, electron cloud and host lattice interact causing the nuclei to fuse together by slipping under the coulomb barrier. The electrons get delocalized in the form of Bloch waves and shield the like charges of the nuclei. This allows them to get closer thereby facilitating nickel hydrogen fusion reaction to occur.
Subsequently, two deuterons fuse together producing helium – 4 and excess energy of about 23.8MeV. The excess energy is then transferred to the host lattice in the form of phonon which is sound waves. These are then released in the form of heat energy. No external heat is needed for the process which explains why it is known as cold fusion.
To conclude here, hydrogen is important because it is the basic ingredient for the nickel hydrogen fusion process. Therefore, the coming of cold fusion technology will prove to be a major breakthrough in the world of science. There will be pure and cheaper energy available without any hazards.